Council on Scientific Affairs, American
Medical Association: Good care of the dying patient. JAMA 1996;
McMillan S: Pain and pain relief experienced by
hospice patients with cancer. Cancer Nurs 1996; 19:298_307.
Higginson I: Palliative care: A review of past
changes and future trends. J Public Health Med 1933; 15:3_8.
Thalbuber W: Overcoming physician barriers to hospice
care. Minn Med 1995; 78:25_8.
Manion J: Cancer pain management in the hospice
setting. Minn Med 1995; 78:25_8.
Schonwetter R: Care of the dying geriatric patient.
Clin Geriatr 1996; 12:253_65.
Von Guten C, Twaddle M: Terminal care
for noncancer patients. Clin Geriatr 1996; 12:349_58.
Long MC: Death and dying and recognizing approaching death. Clin
Geriatr 1996; 12:259_68.
Robinson B, Pham H: Cost effectiveness of hospice
care. Clin Geriatr 1996; 12:417_28.
Eng M: The hospice interdisciplinary team: A synergistic
approach to the care of dying patients and their families. Holistic
Nurs Practice 1993; 7:49-56.
Raudonis B: The meaning and impact of empathic
relationships in hospice nursing. Cancer Nurs 1993; 16:304_9.
Berry Z, Lynn J: Hospice medicine. JAMA 1993;
Jackson A: Source of knowledge. Nurs Times 1995;
Praill D: Approaches to spiritual care. Nurs
Times 1995; 91:55_7.
Bone R: Hospice and palliative care. Dis Mon
Corless IB: Dying well: Symptom control within
hospice care. Ann Rev Nurs Res 1994; 12: 125_46.
Christakis NA, Escarce JJ: Survival of Medicare
patients after enrollment in hospice programs. N Eng J Med 1996;
Emanuel EJ, Emanuel LL: Economics of dying: The
illusion of cost savings at the end of life. N Eng J Med 1994;
Anonymous: Home health and hospice careU.S.
1992 MMWR 1993; 42:820_4.
Kliska J: Hospice: Beyond boundaries. Conn Med
Vladeck B C: From the health care financing administration.
JAMA 1996; 274:449.
Emanuel E: Cost savings at the end of life: What
do the data show? JAMA 1996; 275:1907_14.
Randal J: Preparing for life's end: Do health professionals
need more training? J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89:15_6.
Bradshaw A: The spiritual dimension of hospice:
The secularization of an ideal. Soc Sci Med 1996; 43:409-19.
Sheahan P: Psychological pain and care. Nurs
Times 1996; 92:63,66,68.
Field M, Cassel C: Approaching death: Improving
care at the end of life. Institute of Medicine Executive Summary.
1997. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.
Reichel W: Care of the elderly: Clinical Aspects
of Aging. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins;
McMillan SC, Mahon M: A study of the quality of
life of hospice patients on admissions. Cancer Nurs 1994;
Gordon M, Singer PA: Decisions and care at the
end of life. Lancet 1994; 17:52_60.
Miles SH, Weber EP, Koepp R: End of life treatment
in managed care: Potential and peril. West J Med 1995; 163:162_305.
Hogan J: Seeking a better way to di. Scientific
American 1997; 276: 100_5.
Dawson N: Need satisfaction in terminal
care settings. Soc Sci Med 1991; 32:83_7.
Moinpour C, Polissar
L: Factors affecting place of death of hospice and nonhospice cancer
patients. Am J Public Health 1989; 79: 1549_51.
Berry P, Ward S : Barriers to pain management in
hospice: A study of family caregivers. Hospice J 1995; 10:19_33.
Melvin T, Ozbek IN, Eberle DE: Recognition of depression.
Hospice J 1995; 10:39_46.
Maurer Baack C: Nursing's role in the nutritional
care of the terminally ill: Weathering the storm. Hospice J
Seale C: A comparison of hospice and conventional
care. Soc Sci Med 1991; 32:147_52.
Sontag M: A comparison of hospice programs based
Medicare certification status. Am
J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:32_41.
Abyad A: Palliative care: The future. Am J Hospice
Palliat Care 1993; 10:23-8.
Enck R: A review of pain management. Am J Hospice
Palliat Care 1992; 8:6_9.
Wholihan D: The value of reminiscence in hospice
care. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1992; 9:33_5.
Cooke M: The challenge of hospice nursing in the
90's. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1992; 9:34_7.
Von Guten C, Von Roenn J, Neely K, et al: Hospice
and palliative care: Attitudes and practices of the physician faculty
of an academic hospital. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1995;
Appleton M: Hospice medicine: A Different
perspective. Am J
Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:7_9
Bergevin P, Bergevin R: Recognizing delirium in hospice patients.
Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:28_9
O'Callaghan C: Complimentary therapies in terminal
care: Pain, music creativity, and music therapy in palliative care.
Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:43_9.
Paton L: The sacred circle: A different perspective.
Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:7_9.
Gordon A: An interdisciplinary team approach toward
death education. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:21.
Greipp M: SUPPORT study resultslmplications
for hospice care. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:38_45.
Van der Poel C: Ethical aspects in
palliative care. Am Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:49_55.
Grey R: The psychospiritual matrix: A new paradigm for hospice care
giving. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:19-25
Paton L, Wicks M: The growth of the hospice movement
Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:26_8.
Greipp M: Decisions to utilize hospicepilot
study results. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:27_30.
Watt K: Hospice and the elderly: A changing perspective.
Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 13:47_8.
Snyder J: Therapeutic touch and the terminally
ill: Healing power through the hands. Am J Hospice Palliat Care
Bergevin P, Bergevin R: Recognizing depression.
Am Hospice Palliat Care 1995; 12:22_3.
Herth K: Engendering hope in the chronically and terminally ill:
Nursing interventions. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1995; 12:31_9.
Byock 1: Patient refusal of nutrition and hydration:
Walking the ever fine line. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1995;
Byock 1: Ethics from a hospice perspective.
Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1994; 11:9_11.
Morgan A, Lindley C, Berry J: Assessment of pain and patterns of
analgesic use in hospice patients. Am J Hospice Palliat Care
Dudley J, Smith C, Millison M: Unfinished
business: Assessing the spiritual needs of hospice clients. Am
J Hospice Palliat Care 1995; 121:30_7.
Meares CJ: Terminal dehydration: A review. Am
J Hospice Palliat Care 1994; 11:10_14.
Tierney J, Wilson D: Hospice versus home health
care: Regulatory distinctions and program intent. Am J Hospice
Palliat Care 1994; 11: 14_22.
Storey P: What is the role of the hospice physician?
Am Hospice Palliat Care 1993; 10:2_3.
Fainsinger R, Miller M, Bruera E, et al: Symptom
control during the last week of life on a palliative care unit.
Am Hospice Palliat Care 1991; 7:5_11.
Turner K, Chye R, Aggarwal G, et al: Dignity in
dying: A preliminary study of patients in the last three days of
life. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 1996; 12:7_13.
Prigerson H: Determinants of hospice utilization
among terminally ill geriatric patients. Home Health Ser Q
Wilson S: The family as caregivers: Home hospice
care. Fam Community Health 1992; 15:71_80.
Spence R: Nutrition in hospice care. Caring
Bohnet N: Hospice concepts in home care. Caring
Gurfolino V, Dumas L: Hospice nursing: The concept
of palliative care. Nurs Clin North Am 1994; 29:533_46.
Austin C, Cody C, Eyres P, et al: Hospice home
care pain manage-ment: Four critical variables. Cancer Nurs 1986;
Feuz A, Rapin C: An observational study of the role of pain control
and food adaptation of elderly patients with terminal cancer. J
Am Diet Assoc 1994; 94:767_70.
Hohl D: Patient satisfaction in home care/hospice.
Nurs Manage 1994; 25:52_4.
McCann R, Hall W, Groth-Juncker A: Comfort care
for terminally ill patients: The appropriate use of nutrition and
hydration. JAMA 1994; 272:1263_6.
Storey P: Symptom control in advanced cancer. Semin
Oncol 1994: 21:748_53.
Willis W: Hyperalgesia and allodynia: Summary and
overview. Hyperalgesia and Allodynia Willis WD, ed: New York,
NY: Raven Press Ltd; 1992:1_11.
Khoo D, Hall E, Motson R, et al: Palliation of
malignant intestinal obstruction using octreotide. Eur J Cancer
Baines M: Intestinal obstruction. Cancer Surv
Palliative Medicine: Problem areas in pain and
symptom management. 1994. 21:1-3.
Lamberts S, Van Der Lely A, De Herder W, Hofland
L: Octreotide. N Eng J Med 1996; 334:246_9.
Johnson Hurzeler R, Barnum E, K limas S, Michael
E: Hospice Care. Handbook of Home Health Care administration.
Garthersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers; 1997:782-9.
Hospice Fact Sheet, National Hospice Organization.
Arlington, Virginia: NHO Web Page: <http://www.nho.org//facts.htm>;
Cancer pain relief and palliative care. Technical
Reports Series 804, World Health Organization, Geneva; 1990.
Hospice Facts and Statistics 1996, Hospice Association
O'Sullivan Maillet J, King D: Nutritional care
of the terminally ill adult. Nutrition and Hydration in Hospice
Care. Binghamton, N.Y.: The Haworth Press; 1993.
Fifield M: Relieving constipation and pain in the
terminally ill. Am J Nurs 1991; 7:18_23.
Dobratz M: Analysis of variables that impact psychological
adaptation in home hospice patients. Hospice J 1995; l0:75_88.
Holden C: Nutrition and hydration in the terminally
ill cancer patient: The nurse's role in helping patients and families
cope. Nutrition and Hydration in Hospice Care. Binghamton,
N.Y.: The Haworth Press, Inc; 1993.
Stjernsward J, Colleau S, Ventafridda V: The World
Health Organization cancer pain and palliative care program: Past,
present, and future. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996; 12:12_4.
Infeld D, Crum G, Koshuta M: Characteristics
of patients in a long-term care hospice setting. HospiceJ 1990;
Willert M, Beckwith B, Holm J, Beckwith S: A
preliminary study of the impact of terminal illness on spouses:
Social support and coping strategies. Hospice J 1995; 10:35_48.
Dobratz M: The life closure scale: A Measure
of psychosocial adaptation in death and dying. Hospice J
Zerwekh J: A family caregiving model for hospice
nursing. Hospice J 1995; 10:27_44.
Millison M: The importance of spirituality in
hospice work: A study of hospice professionals. Hospice J 1990;
Millison M: A review of the research on spiritual
care and hospice. Hospice J 1995; 10:3_18.
Davis C, Hardy J: Current issues in cancer: Palliative
care. Br Med J 1994; 308:1359_62.
Appendix 1.Helpful Reading in Palliative Care
Doyle D, Hanks GWC, MacDonald N: The Oxford
textbook of palliative medicine. Oxford Medical Publications,
Oxford, 1993. The gold standard in palliative care in the English-speaking
world (and probably elsewhere).
Saunders C, Sykes N: The management of terminal
malignant dis-ease, 3rd ed: Edward Arnold, London, 1993. A
shorter view with some excellent insights.
Twycross R: Symptom management. Radcliffe
Medical Press, Oxford, 1995. (A rather cut and dried approach
from one of the founders of the English hospice movement but will
give you a quick access to at least one medical approach with
an emphasis on pharmacology).
Articles and book chapters
Breitbart W: Psycho-oncology: Depression, anxiety,
delirium. Semin Oncol 1994; 21:754_69. (Excellent guide
Brescia F: Specialized care of the terminally
ill. In: Cancer: Principles and practice of Oncology, 4th
ed: DeVita VT Jr., Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds): Philadelphia,
Penn: JB Lippincott Co; 1993:2501_7.
Coyle N, Adelhartdt J, Foley KM, Partenoy RK:
Character of terminal illness in the advanced cancer patient:
Pain and other symptoms during the last four weeks of life. J
Pain Symptom Manage 1989; 5:83_93. (Introduction to the prevalent
symptoms in a home care program).
Kotlowitz R: From my wife's room. New York
Times Magazine, 4 December 1994, pp. 84_89. (Care for the
terminally ill from the patient's and family's point of view).
Lederberg ML, Massie MJ: Psychosocial and ethical
issues in the care of cancer patients. In: Cancer: Principles
and practice of Oncology, 4th ed: DeVita VT Jr., Hellman S,
Rosenberg SA (eds): Philadelphia, Penn: JB Lippincott Co; 1993:2448_63.
Sammarno D: Dealing with the dying patient. In:
Cancer: Principles and practice of Oncology, 4th ed: DeVita
VT Jr., Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds): Philadelphia, Penn: JB
Lippincott Co; 1993:2508_513.
Saunders C: Introduction"History and
Challenge." In: The management of terminal malignant disease.
3rd ed: London: Saunders C, Sykes N: Edward Arnold; 1993:213_25.
Stoutz ND, Tapper M, Fainsinger RL: Reversible
delirium in terminally ill patients. J Pain Symptom Manage
1989; 10:249_53. (Delirium with medically treatable causes).
Twycross RG, Lichter I: The terminal phase. In:
The Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Doyle D, Hanks
GWC, MacDonald N: Oxford, England: Oxford Medical Publications;